What other means of suppression were used by state and local governments as well as private groups?
Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman were anarchists convicted for opposing the draft and sentenced to two years in penitentiary and fined $10,000 each, July 9, 1917.
Eugene Debs was jailed again under the Espionage Act in 1918, this time sentenced to 10 years, for making an anti-war speech.
In 1917, Columbia U. fired 2 professors for speaking out against intervention in the war.
The National Americanization Committee had previously been sympathetic to immigrants but now supported surveillance, internment, and deportation of aliens suspected of anti-American sentiment.
The government and the Woman's Committee helped to establish "patriotic education." They noticed that immigrant ethnic women need the instruction the most, which is why the committee on education was established and headed by Mrs. Carrie Chapman Catt. She stated: "Millions of people in the United States were unclear on why we were at war, and why, as Ida Clarke paraphrases Mrs. Can, there is "the imperative necessity of winning the war if future generations were to be protected from the menace of an unscrupulous militarism."